# Numeric types¶

There are two numeric types in JSON Schema: integer and number. They share the same validation keywords.

Note

JSON has no standard way to represent complex numbers, so there is no way to test for them in JSON Schema.

## integer¶

The `integer`

type is used for integral numbers.

`int`

type.`Integer`

type.```
{ "type": "integer" }
```

```
42
```

```
-1
```

Floating point numbers are rejected:

```
3.1415926
```

Numbers as strings are rejected:

```
"42"
```

Warning

The precise treatment of the “integer” type may depend on the
implementation of your JSON Schema validator. JavaScript (and
thus also JSON) does not have distinct types for integers and
floating-point values. Therefore, JSON Schema can not use type
alone to distinguish between integers and non-integers. The JSON
Schema specification recommends, but does not require, that
validators use the mathematical value to determine whether a
number is an integer, and not the type alone. Therefore, there is
some disagreement between validators on this point. For example,
a JavaScript-based validator may accept `1.0`

as an integer,
whereas the Python-based jsonschema does not.

Clever use of the `multipleOf`

keyword (see Multiples) can be used
to get around this discrepancy. For example, the following likely has
the same behavior on all JSON Schema implementations:

```
{ "type": "number", "multipleOf": 1.0 }
```

```
42
```

```
42.0
```

```
3.14156926
```

## number¶

The `number`

type is used for any numeric type, either integers or
floating point numbers.

`float`

type.`Float`

type.```
{ "type": "number" }
```

```
42
```

```
-1
```

Simple floating point number:

```
5.0
```

Exponential notation also works:

```
2.99792458e8
```

Numbers as strings are rejected:

```
"42"
```

## Multiples¶

Numbers can be restricted to a multiple of a given number, using the
`multipleOf`

keyword. It may be set to any positive number.

```
{
"type" : "number",
"multipleOf" : 10
}
```

```
0
```

```
10
```

```
20
```

Not a multiple of 10:

```
23
```

## Range¶

Ranges of numbers are specified using a combination of the
`minimum`

and `maximum`

keywords, (or `exclusiveMinimum`

and
`exclusiveMaximum`

for expressing exclusive range).

If *x* is the value being validated, the following must hold true:

x≥`minimum`

x>`exclusiveMinimum`

x≤`maximum`

x<`exclusiveMaximum`

While you can specify both of `minimum`

and `exclusiveMinimum`

or both of
`maximum`

and `exclusiveMaximum`

, it doesn’t really make sense to do so.

```
{
"type": "number",
"minimum": 0,
"exclusiveMaximum": 100
}
```

Less than `minimum`

:

```
-1
```

`minimum`

is inclusive, so 0 is valid:

```
0
```

```
10
```

```
99
```

`exclusiveMaximum`

is exclusive, so 100 is not valid:

```
100
```

Greater than `maximum`

:

```
101
```

In JSON Schema Draft 4, `exclusiveMinimum`

and `exclusiveMaximum`

work
differently. There they are boolean values, that indicate whether
`minimum`

and `maximum`

are exclusive of the value. For example:

- if
`exclusiveMinimum`

is`false`

,*x*≥`minimum`

. - if
`exclusiveMinimum`

is`true`

,*x*>`minimum`

.

This was changed to have better keyword independence.

Here is an example using the older Draft 4 convention:

```
{
"type": "number",
"minimum": 0,
"maximum": 100,
"exclusiveMaximum": true
}
```

Less than `minimum`

:

```
-1
```

`exclusiveMinimum`

was not specified, so 0 is included:

```
0
```

```
10
```

```
99
```

`exclusiveMaximum`

is `true`

, so 100 is not included:

```
100
```

Greater than `maximum`

:

```
101
```