JSON Schema Glossary

This document collects short explanations of terminology one may encounter within the JSON Schema community.

Whilst many of the entries below have precise technical definitions, preference is given to explanations of their conversational use, with additional references linked for further information. This page is not meant to be normative, nor is it meant to contain fully original research or explanation. It is meant to aid the understanding of those less familiar with formal language used within JSON Schema, or within specifications more broadly. (In fact, entries below make effort to avoid terminology like "normative" itself for reasons just mentioned.)

If you encounter a term you wish were defined here, please feel free to file an issue requesting it.

The entries on this page can be linked to via anchor links (e.g. when sharing a definition with others.


A cohesive collection of keywords available for use within a schema, often representing a use-case specific single release of the JSON Schema specification.

Dialects, particularly the 2019-09 and 2020-12 dialects, are often defined via a collection of vocabularies.

Each dialect is identified by a URI, its dialect identifier, which schemas may then reference in their $schema keyword. Doing so identifies the schema as being written in the dialect, and thereby indicates which keywords are usable within it, along with their intended meaning.

The JSON Schema specification defines a number of dialects, each of which enable vocabularies suitable for the dialect's specific use case. These vocabularies are described in meta-schemas.


An individual release of the JSON Schema specification.

JSON Schema drafts are not intended to be provisional documents, as the layman's use of the word "draft" might indicate.

While future drafts may introduce new behavior or changes to existing behavior, each draft is a completed, released document, batching together changes to the specification, and intended for implementation and use.

The current list of drafts can be found here.


A pervasive data interchange format used for representing and transmitting data as human readable text. JSON is extremely widely used, and parsers which can read and write it exist for essentially every commonly-used programming language.

JSON Schema, distinctly, is built on top of JSON, in that JSON schemas are themselves JSON objects which describe JSON values. The two are, however, entirely different pieces of the conceptual puzzle, with JSON being a concrete format for representing data, and JSON Schema being a way to schematize data which is written in a JSON-compatible format.

The JSON format is an open format, with its own homepage, and specifications published in the ECMA-404 and RFC-8259 documents from ECMA and the IETF respectively. In particular, it is not managed or developed by the JSON Schema team, who simply make use of the format.

JSON Hyper-Schema

JSON Hyper-Schema extends JSON Schema, offering a vocabulary to annotate JSON documents with hypermedia controls. This extension facilitates the description of links and actions that can be executed on JSON data, making it a powerful tool for developing hypermedia-driven APIs.

The essence of JSON Hyper-Schema lies in its ability to define links and actions that can be executed on JSON data. This is achieved through the use of the links keyword, which allows for the creation of dynamic, interactive data representations. For example, a JSON document representing a blog post might include an "author" property. The JSON Hyper-Schema that describes this document could include a template for a hypermedia control that uses the author's identifier in the instance to construct a link to the author's profile. The developer doesn't need to construct the URL manually, which enhances the developer experience by offering a seamless navigation experience.

In other words, JSON Hyper-Schema extends JSON Schema by introducing features for creating hypermedia controls. This facilitates the creation of interactive APIs and ensures compatibility with existing JSON HTTP APIs, maintaining a seamless integration. It adds a layer of interactivity to JSON documents, making it easier to interact with remote JSON resources.

JSON pointer

JSON Pointer is a string syntax for identifying a value at a specified location within a JSON document. It serves to precisely reference specific parts of the document for retrieval or manipulation. A subschema is often identified using a JSON Pointer, specifying its location within the containing resource.


A property appearing within a schema object.

The JSON Schema specification defines behavior for a large library of keywords which can be used to describe instances.


Historically, the word "implementation" has been used to describe both specifically validators/annotators (the scope of the spec) and also various other kinds of JSON Schema tooling. However, due to this ambiguity, we have decided that the preferred conversational term should be "tooling".


A piece of JSON data which is to be described by a schema.

JSON Schema can be used to describe JSON values of any type (as well as values from many JSON-like formats which can be reasonably represented as JSON).

The JSON Schema specification makes no broad assumptions about the structure of instances themselves beyond those of the JSON specification itself. In particular it does not reserve any properties within a JSON object for its own use, or require parsers of JSON to support features beyond those already mandated of JSON implementations.


A schema which is itself intended to describe other schemas.

JSON Schema defines a language for describing any instance using a schema written in JSON. Since schemas are themselves JSON values, they may be also be treated as instances, and therefore described by other schemas.

We refer to the schema-of-a-schema as a "meta-schema" to express this use.


In the context of JSON Schema, and formal specifications more broadly, a document which outlines standardized behavior. This is as distinct from non-normative or informational documents, meant to explain, simplify or offer opinions.

Distinguishing between whether a document is normative or not is intended to clarify to those using the document whether its contents are allowed to contradict or augment behavior described in other normative documents. JSON Schema's normative documents notably include its specification. This page for instance, not being a normative document, is not able to proscribe new JSON Schema behavior not already covered by the specification.

See also


A document, written according to the proscribed structure of the JSON Schema specification, which can be used to describe instances.

The rules constituting which schemas are conformant, as well as the rules governing their behavior when validating instances, are defined by the JSON Schema specification.

Strictly speaking, according to the specification, schemas are themselves JSON documents, though it is somewhat common for them to be authored or maintained in other languages which are easily translated to JSON, such as YAML.

In recent drafts of the specification, a schema is either a JSON object or a JSON boolean value.


A schema which is itself contained within a surrounding parent schema. Like schemas themselves, in recent drafts of JSON Schema, subschemas are either JSON objects or JSON boolean values.

Within the JSON Schema specification and its dialects, a number of keywords take subschemas as part of their values. For example, the not keyword takes a subschema value and inverts its result, succeeding whenever the subschema does not succeed, such that the instance 12 is invalid under {"type": "string"} but valid under {"not": {"type": "string"}}, where {"type": "string"} is a subschema contained in the full schema.

Some subschemas may appear in more complex nested locations within a parent schema. The allOf keyword, for instance, takes an array of multiple subschemas and succeeds whenever all of the subschemas do individually.

Whether something that otherwise appears to be a schema (based on its contents) actually is a subschema can be misleading at first glance without context or knowlege about its location within the parent schema. Specifically, in our above example, {"type": "string"} was a subschema of a larger schema, but in the schema {"const": {"type": "string"}}, it is not a subschema. Even though as a value it looks the same, the const keyword, which compares instances against a specific expected value, does not take a subschema as its value, its value is an opaque value with no particular meaning (such that in this schema, the number 12 would be invalid, but the precise instance {"type": "string"} is valid). Said more plainly, whether a particular value is a subschema or not depends on its precise location within a parent schema, as interpretation of the value depends on the defined behavior of the keyword(s) it lives under.

Subschemas may themselves contain sub-subschemas, though colloquially one generally uses the term "subschema" regardless of the level of nesting, further clarifying which larger schema is the parent schema whenever needed.


A JSON Schema tool (or colloquially "tooling") is any software application or library for working with or evaluating schemas in some way.

The following are considered tools:

  • a validator library
  • a CLI validator
  • a schema or code generator
  • a UI form generator

Applications which use JSON Schema internally without exposing that functionality in some way, for example, validating configuration files or web requests, are not considered tooling.

validation result

The validation result in the context of JSON Schema refers to the outcome of applying the entire JSON Schema to the entire instance document. This outcome can encompass more than just a boolean assertion and may include various output formats, such as error messages, error codes, or detailed validation reports. It signifies whether the instance document adheres to the rules and constraints specified in the schema. The validation result signifies whether the instance document passes or fails validation against the schema.


A tightly related collection of keywords, grouped to facilitate re-use.

A vocabulary is specified by a prose document or specification which explains the semantics of its keywords in a way suitable for implementers and users of the vocabulary. It often also includes a meta-schema (or multiple metaschemas) which define the syntax of its keywords.

Anyone can create and publish a vocabulary, and implementations generally will include facilities for extending themselves with support for additional vocabularies and their keywords. The JSON Schema specification includes a number of vocabularies which cover each of the keywords it defines.

In some dialects of JSON Schema, the $vocabulary keyword can be used to include the keywords defined by a vocabulary into the dialect, as well as to indicate whether implementations must specifically recognize the vocabulary in order to be able to process schemas written in the dialect or not.

See also

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